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Free Exam: History - 1920s

Number of Questions in Test: 22
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Question 1

[u]PRIMARY SOURCE (5-POINTS)[/u]

[i][b]An Open Letter from a Flapper
by Ellen Welles Page, Outlook Magazine, Dec. 6, 1922[/b][/i]

[img]http://my.ilstu.edu/~lmerri/uhigh/1920%27s/flappers.gif[/img]


Dear Parents,

If one judge by appearances, I suppose I am a flapper. I am within the age limit. I wear bobbed hair, the badge of flapperhood. (And, oh, what a comfort it is!), I powder my nose. I wear fringed skirts and bright-colored sweaters, and scarfs, and waists with Peter Pan collars, and low-heeled "finale hopper" shoes. I adore dancing. I spend a large amount of time in automobiles. I attend hops, and proms, and ball-games, and crew races, and other affairs at men's colleges. But none the less some of the most thoroughbred superflappers might blush to claim sistership or even remote relationship with such as me. I don't use rouge, or lipstick, or pluck my eyebrows. I don't smoke (I've tried it, and don't like it), or drink, or tell "peppy stories." I don't pet. But then--there are many degrees of flapper. There is the semi-flapper; the flapper; the superflapper. Each of these three main general divisions has its degrees of variation. I might possibly be placed somewhere in the middle of the first class.

   I think every one realizes by this time that there has been a marked change in our much-discussed tactics. Jazz has been modified, and probably will continue to be until it has become obsolete. Petting is gradually growing out of fashion through being overworked. Yes, undoubtedly our hopeless condition is improving. But it was not for discussing these aspects of the case that began this article.

   I want to beg all you parents, and grandparents, and friends, and teachers, and preachers--you who constitute the "older generation"--to overlook our shortcomings, at least for the present, and to appreciate our virtues. I wonder if it ever occurred to any of you that it required brains to become and remain a successful flapper? Indeed it does! It requires an enormous amount of cleverness and energy to keep going at the proper pace. It requires self- knowledge and self analysis. We must know our capabilities and limitations. We must be constantly on the alert. Attainment of flapperhood is a big and serious undertaking!

   "Brains?" you repeat, skeptically. "Then why aren't they used to better advantage?" That is exactly it! And do you know who is largely responsible for all this energy's being spent in the wrong directions? You! You parents, and grandparents, and friends, and teachers, and preachers--all of you! "The war!" you cry. "It is the effect of the war!" And then you blame prohibition. Yes! Yet it is you who set the example there! But this is my point: Instead of helping us work out our problems with constructive, sympathetic thinking and acting, you have muddled them for us more hopelessly with destructive public condemnation and denunciation.

   Think back to the time when you were struggling through your early years. Remember how spontaneous and deep were the joys, how serious and penetrating the sorrows. Most of us, under the present system of modern education, are further advanced and more thoroughly developed mentally, physically, and vocationally than were our parents at our age. We hold the infinite possibilities of the myriads of new inventions within our grasp. We have learned to take for granted conveniences, and many luxuries, which not so many years ago were as yet undreamed of. We are in touch with the whole universe. We have a tremendous problem on our hands. You must help us. Give us confidence--not distrust. Give us practical aid and advice--not criticism. Praise us when praise is merited. Be patient and understanding when we make mistakes.

   We are the Younger Generation. The war tore away our spiritual foundations and challenged our faith. We are struggling to regain our equilibrium. The times have made us older and more experienced than you were at our age. It must be so with each succeeding generation if it is to keep pace with the rapidly advancing and mighty tide of civilization. Help us to put our knowledge to the best advantage. Work with us! That is the way! Outlets for this surplus knowledge and energy must be opened. Give us a helping hand."


[color=blue][b][u]DIRECTIONS[/u][/b]:  Complete  A.D.A.M.S. (Author / Date/ Audience / Motive / Significance) for the primary source above.[/color]

Type: Essay
Points: 5

Question 2

[u]PRIMARY SOURCE (5-POINTS)[/u]


[b]Lou Gehrig's Farewell Speech[/b]

[i]BACKGROUND:  Professional baseball player Lou Gehrig's Farewell speech in 1939 after spending 17 years in the majors(without missing a game).  He died two years later of what is now called Lou Gehrig's Disease.
[/i]


[img]http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_5lOURXR3puU/Sk-_E-I0uFI/AAAAAAAABE0/_C-MaX3FrQk/s400/farewell.jpg[/img]

[i]"Fans, for the past two weeks you have been reading about the bad break I got. Yet today I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of this earth. I have been in ballparks for seventeen years and have never received anything but kindness and encouragement from you fans.

When the New York Giants, a team you would give your right arm to beat, and vice versa, sends you a gift - that's something. When everybody down to the groundskeepers remember you with trophies - that's something. When you have a father and a mother who work all their lives so you can have an education and build your body - it's a blessing. When you have a wife who has been a tower of strength and shown more courage than you dreamed existed - that's the finest I know.

So I close in saying that I may have had a tough break, but I have an awful lot to live for."[/i]

[color=blue][b][u]DIRECTIONS[/u][/b]:  Complete  A.D.A.M.S. (Author / Date/ Audience / Motive / Significance) for the primary source above. for the primary source above.[/color]

Type: Essay
Points: 5

Question 3

PRIMARY SOURCE (3-POINTS)

[u][b]Henry Ford Interview[/b][/u]

[img]http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Design/Gartman/D_Casestudy/PO3015a_Henry-Ford.gif[/img]

[i][u]BACKGROUND[/u]:  Henry Ford (1863-1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and the Henry Ford Company. He was one of the first to apply assembly line manufacturing to the mass production of affordable automobiles. Some credit him with contributing to the creation of a middle class in American society. The following is a transcript of an interview conducted of Henry Ford in 1929.
[/i]


[i]"We have," Henry Ford said, "decided to at once put into effect through all the branches of our industries the five day week. Hereafter there will be no more work with us on Saturdays and Sundays. These will be free days, but the men, according to merit, will receive the same pay equivalent as for a full six day week. A day will continue to be eight hours.

"The harder we crowd business for time, the more efficient it becomes. The more well-paid leisure workmen get, the greater become their wants. These wants soon become needs. Well-managed business pays high wages to their employees so that they can then turn around and by the products of their company.

"The industry of this country could not long exist if factories generally went back to the ten hour day, because the people would not have the time to consume the goods produced. For instance, a workman would have little use for an automobile if he had to be in the shops from dawn until dusk. And that would react in countless directions, for the automobile, by enabling people to get about quickly and easily, gives them a chance to find out what is going on in the world-which leads them to a larger life that requires more food, more and better goods, more books, more music -- more of everything. The benefits of travel are not confined to those who can take an expensive foreign trip. There is more to learn in this country than there is abroad."[/i]

[color=blue][b][u]DIRECTIONS[/u][/b]:  Use the Primary Source above to answer the following questions.[/color]

[color=blue]1.  What new labor practice is Henry Ford announcing in the interview?

2.  What logic does Ford use to explain why workers should be paid well?

3.  What logic does Ford use to explain why workers should have fewer hours?[/color]

Type: Essay
Points: 3

Question 4

[u]PRIMARY SOURCE (3-POINTS)[/u]

[b]I, Too[/b]
[b]By: Langston Hughes, 1926[/b]


[i]BACKGROUND:  Langston Hughes was an American poet and a social activist, who was one of the earliest innovators of the art form call jazz poetry. Mr. Hughes poetry often focused on the difficulties facing African-Americans. His best known poem is titled I, Too.[/i]

[img]http://uagreeks.uark.edu/images/Langston_Hughes.jpg[/img]

I, too, sing America.


I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.

Tomorrow,
I'll be at the table
When company comes.
Nobody'll dare
Say to me,
"Eat in the kitchen,"
Then.

Besides,
They'll see how beautiful I am
And be ashamed--

I, too, am America.


----------------------------------------------------------
[b]How to raise a black son in America[/b]
[b]BY: Clint Smith, 2014[/b]

[i]BACKGROUND: Clint Smith is a poet, teacher and activist whose poetry often blends art with activism. He is a strong proponent of the #BlackLivesMatters campaign and much of his "Slam poetry" revolves around growing up black in America
[/i]

[i][cmimg]0/522756_QFCHKDKJ.jpg[/cmimg]
[/i]


Growing up, I didn't always understand why my parents made me follow the rules that they did. 

I've been thinking a lot lately about the idea of humanity, and specifically, who in this world is afforded the privilege of being perceived as fully human. Over the course of the past several months, the world has watched as unarmed black men, and women, have had their lives taken at the hands of police and vigilante. These events and all that has transpired after them have brought me back to my own childhood and the decisions that my parents made about raising a black boy in America that growing up, I didn't always understand in the way that I do now.

I think of how hard it must have been, how profoundly unfair it must have felt for them to feel like they had to strip away parts of my childhood just so that I could come home at night.

For example, I think of how one night, when I was around 12 years old, on an overnight field trip to another city, my friends and I bought Super Soakers and turned the hotel parking lot into our own water-filled battle zone. We hid behind cars, running through the darkness that lay between the streetlights,boundless laughter ubiquitous across the pavement. But within 10 minutes, my father came outside, grabbed me by my forearm and led me into our room with an unfamiliar grip. Before I could say anything,tell him how foolish he had made me look in front of my friends, he derided me for being so naive.Looked me in the eye, fear consuming his face, and said, "Son, I'm sorry, but you can't act the same as your white friends. You can't pretend to shoot guns. You can't run around in the dark. You can't hide behind anything other than your own teeth."

I know now how scared he must have been, how easily I could have fallen into the empty of the night,that some man would mistake this water for a good reason to wash all of this away.

These are the sorts of messages I've been inundated with my entire life: Always keep your hands where they can see them, don't move too quickly, take off your hood when the sun goes down. My parents raised me and my siblings in an armor of advice, an ocean of alarm bells so someone wouldn't steal the breath from our lungs, so that they wouldn't make a memory of this skin. So that we could be kids, not casket or concrete. And it's not because they thought it would make us better than anyone else it's simply because they wanted to keep us alive.

All of my black friends were raised with the same message, the talk, given to us when we became old enough to be mistaken for a nail ready to be hammered to the ground, when people made our melanin[skin color] synonymous with something to be feared.

But what does it do to a child to grow up knowing that you cannot simply be a child? That the whims of adolescence are too dangerous for your breath, that you cannot simply be curious, that you are not afforded the luxury of making a mistake, that someone's implicit bias might be the reason you don't wake up in the morning.

But this cannot be what defines us. Because we have parents who raised us to understand that our bodies weren't meant for the backside of a bullet, but for flying kites and jumping rope, and laughing until our stomachs burst. We had teachers who taught us how to raise our hands in class, and not just to signal surrender, and that the only thing we should give up is the idea that we aren't worthy of this world.So when we say that black lives matter, it's not because others don't, it's simply because we must affirm that we are worthy of existing without fear, when so many things tell us we are not. I want to live in a world where my son will not be presumed guilty the moment he is born, where a toy in his hand isn't mistaken for anything other than a toy.

And I refuse to accept that we can't build this world into something new, some place where a child's name doesn't have to be written on a t-shirt, or a tombstone, where the value of someone's life isn't determined by anything other than the fact that they had lungs, a place where every single one of us can breathe.


[color=blue][u][b]DIRECTIONS[/b][/u]:  Read the poems above.  Answer the questions below.[/color]

[color=blue]1. What common issues and concerns for African-Americans can be seen between the era of Langston Hughes and Clint Smith?[/color]

[color=blue]2. What common theme does each poet use to end their poem? Provide an excerpt from each poem that supports your answer. [/color]

[color=#0000ff]3. Imagine if Langston Hughes was the father of Clint Smith. What kind of fatherly advice might he offer him?[/color]

Type: Essay
Points: 3

Question 5

[u]PRIMARY SOURCE (4-POINTS)[/u]

[img]http://czechabsinthe.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/nolips.jpg[/img]

[i]"After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited."

~18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States1920[/i]

[color=blue]
[u][b]DIRECTIONS[/b][/u]: The goal of the 18th Amendment was to eliminate or reduce several perceived problems within American society. Unfortunately, it failed in nearly all of these attempts. Below you will find a list of social problems that "Drys" thought would be eliminated or reduced by prohibiting alcohol. Explain how Prohibition had the opposite effect.[/color]


[color=blue]1. To many men were drinking away their paychecks instead of bringing them home to their families. Prohibition will help to reduce poverty.

2. While intoxicated individuals often break the law. Prohibition will help to reduce crime. [/color]

Type: Essay
Points: 4

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